The Conceptual Research For Accelerated Weathering Of Olivine In Tropical Shelf Seas That Inspired Project Vesta:

Rolling stones – fast weathering of olivine in shallow seas for cost-effective CO2 capture and mitigation of global warming and ocean acidification

This paper, while concise, proposes the basic concepts Project Vesta is based on. It posits the simple formula (based on 2011 numbers) that a volume of 7 KM^3 of olivine on 2% of the world's tropical shelf seas could remove total yearly anthropogenic CO2 emissions. A simple desktop shaker experiment detailed in this paper also demonstrates the counter-intuitive speed at which larger grains are able to weather rapidly due to their greater mass in collisions and from the effects of mechanical activation.

Schuiling, R. D., & de Boer, P. L. (2011). Rolling stones; fast weathering of olivine in shallow seas for cost-effective CO2 capture and mitigation of global warming and ocean acidification. Earth System Dynamics Discussion, 2, 551–568. https://doi.org/10.5194/esdd-2-551-2011
Olivine against climate change and ocean acidification

This paper outlines the overall view of the full potential of olivine to fight climate change and ocean acidification. It lays out some of the fundamental information that underlies the conceptual framework and logic of accelerating Earth's natural longterm carbonate storage method by enhancing the weathering speed of silicate rocks. It also goes into some numbers on what the project might look like for global level anthropogenic CO2 emissions removal.

Schuiling, R. D. (2011). Olivine against climate change and ocean acidification.
Mitigation of CO2 Emissions By Stimulated Natural Rock Weathering

This presentation also contributes to the logistical basis of our project. It starts out with the basic concepts and goes on to outline what the larger phases of costal olivine deployment might look like (our Phase IV is based on the numbers in this). It also addresses many common questions and common objections related to the deployment of large scale enhanced weathering. It also presents data from a flume experiment that further confirms the outsized effect that continuous motion has on accelerating the olivine weathering rate.

de Boer, P. L., & Schuiling, R. D. (2015). Mitigation of CO2 emissions by stimulated natural rock weathering: Fast weathering of olivine in high-energy shallow seas

Research On Enhanced Weathering Processes

Environmental life cycle assessment of CO2 sequestration through enhanced weathering of olivine

A CO2 life cycle assessment of olivine mining, milling, and transport to beaches within 300 Km of the mine. Using a similar model to Project Vesta (in terms of distance transported and olivine grain size), this analysis finds an approximately 95% efficiency, with only about 5% net CO2 loss on CO2 removed. Carried out in 2011, it is currently being updated to include additional scenarios, and to take into account modern, more efficient equipment and vehicles.

Koornneef, J., Nieuwlaar, E., (2011). Environmental life cycle assessment of co2 sequestration through enhanced weathering of olvine.

Enhanced Weathering Section 4.3.7.4 of the Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR) Section of Chapter 4 of the IPCC 1.5 degree report pages 48-49

The latest IPCC Report on limiting global warming to a 1.5 degrees increase has a section related to Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR) (4.3.7) and an entire subsection related to Enhanced Weathering (4.3.7.4). While coastal weathering is mentioned, they also cite uncertainties and the need for verification by field experiments, so here at Project Vesta, that is what we are doing. We hope to have our real-world weathering, mining, and transport data published and verified in time to be included in the next report. "Agreement is low due to a variety of assumptions and unknown parameter ranges in the applied modeling procedures that would need to be verified by field experiments... Site-specific cost estimates vary depending on the chosen technology for rock grinding, material transport, and rock source." By utilizing tropical beaches to grind dunite rocks transported only from within 300 km of the beach, we believe our proposal overcomes the IPCC's concerns and therefore warrants a major update to their model for enhanced coastal weathering's estimated total CDR potential.

Chapter 4: Strengthening and implementing the global response — IPCC. (n.d.). Retrieved October 7, 2019, from https://www.ipcc.ch/report/sr15/chapter-4-strengthening-and-implementing-the-global-response/
Geoengineering Responses to Climate Change – Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and Weathering Approaches Chapter 7

In-depth, full-chapter outline on olivine weathering and the mechanism by which it's weathering removes CO2. This chapter also touches on proposed plans for deployment and experiments.

Schuiling, R. D. (2013). Carbon Dioxide Sequestration, Weathering Approaches to. In T. Lenton & N. Vaughan (Eds.), Geoengineering Responses to Climate Change: Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology (pp. 141–167). New York, NY: Springer New York. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-5770-1_7
Olivine Dissolution in Seawater Implications for CO2 Sequestration through enhanced weathering

A thorough paper looking at the details related to real-world weathering rates of coastal olivine distribution. With a focus on marine safety and an analysis of the implications of deployment, this paper concludes that further research such as the real world, or "in situ," experiments proposed by Project Vesta, need to be carried out. This study lays out methodologies by which CO2 dissolution can be tracked and by which the safety of the ecosystem can be monitored. Project Vesta is being advised in our work and is in and contact with a majority of the authors of this paper.

Montserrat, F., Renforth, P., Hartmann, J., Leermakers, M., Knops, P., & Meysman, F. J. R. (2017). Olivine Dissolution in Seawater: Implications for CO2 Sequestration through Enhanced Weathering in Coastal Environments. Environmental Science & Technology, 51(7), 3960–3972. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b05942
Negative co2 emissions via enhanced silicate weathering in coastal environments global montserrat
Meysman, F. J. R., & Montserrat, F. (2017). Negative CO2 emissions via enhanced silicate weathering in coastal environments. Biology Letters, 13(4). https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2016.0905
Enhanced chemical weathering as a geoengineering strategy to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide, supply nutrients, and mitigate ocean acidification
Hartmann, J., West, A. J., Renforth, P., Köhler, P., Rocha, C. L. D. L., Wolf‐Gladrow, D. A., … Scheffran, J. (2013). Enhanced chemical weathering as a geoengineering strategy to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide, supply nutrients, and mitigate ocean acidification. Reviews of Geophysics, 51(2), 113–149. https://doi.org/10.1002/rog.20004
Enhanced Weathering An Effective and Cheap Tool to Sequester CO2
Schuiling, R. D., & Krijgsman, P. (2006). Enhanced Weathering: An Effective and Cheap Tool to Sequester Co2. Climatic Change, 74(1), 349–354. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-005-3485-y
Potential and costs of carbon dioxide removal by enhanced weathering of rocks
Strefler, J., Amann, T., Bauer, N., Kriegler, E., & Hartmann, J. (2018). Potential and costs of carbon dioxide removal by enhanced weathering of rocks. Environmental Research Letters, 13(3), 034010. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/aaa9c4
Geoengineering Potential of Artificially Enhanced Silicate Weathering of Olivine
Köhler, P., Hartmann, J., & Wolf-Gladrow, D. A. (2010). Geoengineering potential of artificially enhanced silicate weathering of olivine. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107(47), 20228–20233. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1000545107

Research On Mechanical Activation

Grinding methods to enhance the reactivity of olivine summers 2005
Mechanical activation of olivine – 2006 kleiv thornhill
Enhanced dissolution of minerals stored energy, amorphism and mechanical activation – tromans meech 2001
Ultra-fine-grinding-and-mechanical-activation-of-mine-waste-rock-using-a-high-speed-stirred-mill-for-mineral-carbonation
Mechanical Activation Of Ultramafic Mine Waste Materials For Enhanced Mineral Carbonation
Structural changes in olivine (Mg, Fe)2SiO4 mechanically activated in high-energy mills

Natural Olivine Weathering Rates

Dissolution of olivine during natural weathering – Velbel
Carbon Dioxide Fixation within Mine Wastes of Ultramafic-Hosted Ore Deposits: Examples from the Clinton Creek and Cassiar Chrysotile Deposits, Canada
Carbon Dioxide Fixation within Mine Wastes of Ultramafic-Hosted Ore Deposits: Examples from the Clinton Creek and Cassiar Chrysotile Deposits, Canada | Economic Geology | GeoScienceWorld. (n.d.). Retrieved October 6, 2019, from https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/segweb/economicgeology/article-abstract/104/1/95/128062/Carbon-Dioxide-Fixation-within-Mine-Wastes-of?redirectedFrom=fulltext
Verifying and quantifying carbon fixation in minerals from serpentine-rich mine tailings using the Rietveld method with X-ray powder diffraction data
Weathering of the primary rock-forming minerals primary processes products and rate dissolution
The worm gut a natural clay mineral factory and a possible cause of diagenetic grain coats in sandstones
Erosion of Deccan Traps determined by river geochemistry impact on the global climate dessert
Introduction to fluid motions sediments transport and current generated sedimentation structures – Chapter 9 MIT course earth atmospheric and planetary sciences
Trace-element geochemistry of mantle olivine and application to mantle petrogenesis and geothermobarometry – Dehoog 2010

Research On Carbonation

Carbonate chemistry for sequestering fossil carbon
In situ carbonation of peridotite for CO2 storage
Ex Situ Aqueous Mineral Carbonation – Gerdemann 2007

Research On Mining: Pricing, Sustainability, Strategy

Mineral Investment Valuation and the Cost of Capital – Sani 1976
An estimate of the cost of sustainable production of metal concentrates from the earth’s crust
Strategizing Carbon-Neutral Mines A Case for Pilot Projects
Developing cost-optimization production control model via simulation – Golenko-Ginzburg1999
Cost Estimates for Surface Mining

Carbonate-Silicate Cycle | Longterm Cabon Cycle | Inorganic Carbon Cycle

Arc-continent collisions in the tropics set Earth’s climate state
A major drop in seawater 87Sr 86Sr during the Middle Ordovician links to volcanism and climate
Young, S. A., Saltzman, M. R., Foland, K. A., Linder, J. S., & Kump, L. R. (2009). A major drop in seawater 87Sr/86Sr during the Middle Ordovician (Darriwilian): Links to volcanism and climate? Geology, 37(10), 951–954. https://doi.org/10.1130/G30152A.1
Modeling the Geochemical Carbon Cycle
The carbonate-silicate geochemical cycle and its effect on atmospheric carbon dioxide over the past 100 million years berner lasaga
A geological perspective on global warming and the possibility of carbon dioxide removal as calcium carbonate mineral dunsmore 1992
Fate of fossil fuel CO2 in geologic time

Diatoms

The regulation of equatorial Pacific new production and pCO2 by silicate-limited diatoms
Response of diatoms distribution to global warming and potential implications a global study
Continental erosion and the cenozoic rise of marine diatoms
Future biological and ecosystem impacts of ocean acidification and their socioeconomic-policy implications

Historically Significant Papers On Mineral Carbonation

CO2 dispoal by means of silicates (First silicate weathering paper) – Seifritz 1990
Carbon dioxide disposal in carbonate minerals – Lackner 1995

Additional Applications of Olivine For Combating Climate Change

Six commercially viable ways to remove CO2 from the atmosphere and or reduce CO2 emissions, and to counteract ocean acidification
Schuiling, R. D., & de Boer, P. L. (2013). Six commercially viable ways to remove CO2 from the atmosphere and/or reduce CO2 emissions. Environmental Sciences Europe, 25(1), 35. https://doi.org/10.1186/2190-4715-25-35
The Green Cookery Book Recipes Against Climate Change and Ocean Acidification

Schuiling, R. D. (2014).  The Green Cookery book: Recipes against cliamte change and ocean acidifcation

Eureka – one stone to kill two birds

The Olivine Foundation.  Eureka – one stone to kill two birds

Olivine Hills – Mineral Water Against Climate Change
Serpentinite slurries against forest fires

Common Criticisms, Potential Issues, and Rebuttals

Coastal spreading of olivine to control atmospheric CO2 concentrations: A critical analysis of viability. Comment: Nature and laboratory models are different
Schuiling, R. D., & de Boer, P. L. (2010). Coastal spreading of olivine to control atmospheric CO2 concentrations: A critical analysis of viability. Comment: Nature and laboratory models are different. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 4(5), 855–856. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijggc.2010.04.012
Farming nickel from non-ore deposits combined with CO2 sequestration
Olivine weathering, Nickel release and practical implications for CO2 sequestration
Lenferink, J., & Knops, P. (2018). Olivine weathering, the release of Nickel and practical implications for CO2 sequestration. AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, 43. Retrieved from http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018AGUFMGC43G1611L
Geoengineering impact of open ocean dissolution of olivine on atmospheric CO2 surface ocean pH and marine biology
Köhler, P., Abrams, J. F., Völker, C., Hauck, J., & Wolf-Gladrow, D. A. (2013). Geoengineering impact of open ocean dissolution of olivine on atmospheric CO2, surface ocean pH and marine biology. Environmental Research Letters, 8(1), 014009. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/8/1/014009

Miscellaneous Studies and Posters

Modelling tidal current-induced bed shear stress and palaeocirculation in an epicontinental seaway the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin
A research roadmap for quantifying non-state and subnational climate mitigation action
Mineral Resources in Norway – The Norwegian mining and quarrying inudstry in 2004
Mitigation of CO 2 emissions by stimulated natural rock weathering – fast weathering of olivine in high-energy shallow seas Poster (2013)
Safely & Economic Sequestering CO2 with Olivine
Sediment ingestion by worms and the production of bio-clays a study of macrobiologically enhanced weathering and early diagenetic processes
Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR) Section of Chapter 4 of the IPCC 1.5 degree report pages 44-49
Fosterite olivine deposits of North Carolina
The Dragons of Inaction – Psychological Barriers That Limit Climate Change Mitigation
Institutionalizing delay foundation funding and the creation of U.S. climate change counter-movement organizations

About 4 Vesta, the Olivine Containing Protoplanet/Asteroid Named After The Roman Goddess of the Hearth and Home

Olivine in an unexpected location on Vesta’s surface – Ammannito 2013
Open Book
Investigating the Origin of the Asteroids and Early Findings on Vesta

Bibliography

(Automatically Generated via Zotero, with manual additions below)

Schuiling, R. D., & de Boer, P. L. (2013). Six commercially viable ways to remove CO2 from the atmosphere and/or reduce CO2 emissions. Environmental Sciences Europe, 25(1), 35. https://doi.org/10.1186/2190-4715-25-35
Carbon Dioxide Fixation within Mine Wastes of Ultramafic-Hosted Ore Deposits: Examples from the Clinton Creek and Cassiar Chrysotile Deposits, Canada | Economic Geology | GeoScienceWorld. (n.d.). Retrieved October 6, 2019, from https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/segweb/economicgeology/article-abstract/104/1/95/128062/Carbon-Dioxide-Fixation-within-Mine-Wastes-of?redirectedFrom=fulltext
Young, S. A., Saltzman, M. R., Foland, K. A., Linder, J. S., & Kump, L. R. (2009). A major drop in seawater 87Sr/86Sr during the Middle Ordovician (Darriwilian): Links to volcanism and climate? Geology, 37(10), 951–954. https://doi.org/10.1130/G30152A.1
Köhler, P., Abrams, J. F., Völker, C., Hauck, J., & Wolf-Gladrow, D. A. (2013). Geoengineering impact of open ocean dissolution of olivine on atmospheric CO2, surface ocean pH and marine biology. Environmental Research Letters, 8(1), 014009. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/8/1/014009
Köhler, P., Hartmann, J., & Wolf-Gladrow, D. A. (2010). Geoengineering potential of artificially enhanced silicate weathering of olivine. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107(47), 20228–20233. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1000545107
Schuiling, R. D., & de Boer, P. L. (2010). Coastal spreading of olivine to control atmospheric CO2 concentrations: A critical analysis of viability. Comment: Nature and laboratory models are different. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 4(5), 855–856. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijggc.2010.04.012
Schuiling, R. D., & Krijgsman, P. (2006). Enhanced Weathering: An Effective and Cheap Tool to Sequester Co2. Climatic Change, 74(1), 349–354. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-005-3485-y
Schuiling, R. D. (2011). Olivine against climate change and ocean acidification.
Schuiling, R. D., & de Boer, P. L. (2011). Rolling stones; fast weathering of olivine in shallow seas for cost-effective CO2 capture and mitigation of global warming and ocean acidification. Earth System Dynamics Discussion, 2, 551–568. https://doi.org/10.5194/esdd-2-551-2011