The Conceptual Research For Accelerated Weathering Of Olivine In Tropical Shelf Seas That Inspired Project Vesta:
This paper, while concise, proposes the basic concepts Project Vesta is based on. It posits the simple formula (based on 2011 numbers) that a volume of 7 KM^3 of olivine on 2% of the world's tropical shelf seas could remove total yearly anthropogenic CO2 emissions. A simple desktop shaker experiment detailed in this paper also demonstrates the counter-intuitive speed at which larger grains are able to weather rapidly due to their greater mass in collisions and from the effects of mechanical activation.
This paper outlines the overall view of the full potential of olivine to fight climate change and ocean acidification. It lays out some of the fundamental information that underlies the conceptual framework and logic of accelerating Earth's natural longterm carbonate storage method by enhancing the weathering speed of silicate rocks. It also goes into some numbers on what the project might look like for global level anthropogenic CO2 emissions removal.
This presentation also contributes to the logistical basis of our project. It starts out with the basic concepts and goes on to outline what the larger phases of costal olivine deployment might look like (our Phase IV is based on the numbers in this). It also addresses many common questions and common objections related to the deployment of large scale enhanced weathering. It also presents data from a flume experiment that further confirms the outsized effect that continuous motion has on accelerating the olivine weathering rate.
de Boer, P. L., & Schuiling, R. D. (2015). Mitigation of CO2 emissions by stimulated natural rock weathering: Fast weathering of olivine in high-energy shallow seas
Research On Enhanced Weathering Processes:
A CO2 life cycle assessment of olivine mining, milling, and transport to beaches within 300 Km of the mine. Using a similar model to Project Vesta (in terms of distance transported and olivine grain size), this analysis finds an approximately 95% efficiency, with only about 5% net CO2 loss on CO2 removed. Carried out in 2011, it is currently being updated to include additional scenarios, and to take into account modern, more efficient equipment and vehicles.
Koornneef, J., Nieuwlaar, E., (2011). Environmental life cycle assessment of co2 sequestration through enhanced weathering of olvine.
The latest IPCC Report on limiting global warming to a 1.5 degrees increase has a section related to Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR) (4.3.7) and an entire subsection related to Enhanced Weathering (18.104.22.168). While coastal weathering is mentioned, they also cite uncertainties and the need for verification by field experiments: "Agreement is low due to a variety of assumptions and unknown parameter ranges in the applied modeling procedures that would need to be verified by field experiments... Site-specific cost estimates vary depending on the chosen technology for rock grinding, material transport, and rock source." So here at Project Vesta, we are working to carry out a field experiment and have real-world weathering, mining, and transport data published and verified in time to be included in the next report. By utilizing tropical beaches to finely grind dunite rocks transported only from within 300 km of the beach, we believe this enhanced coastal weathering model is efficient and scalable enough to overcome any of the IPCC's concerns. We hope to provide the evidence that enhanced coastal weathering's total CDR potential and price point warrant it to be a major part of the future CDR strategery.
In-depth, full-chapter outline on olivine weathering and the mechanism by which it's weathering removes CO2. This chapter also touches on proposed plans for deployment and experiments.
A thorough paper looking at the details related to real-world weathering rates of coastal olivine distribution. With a focus on marine safety and an analysis of the implications of deployment, this paper concludes that further research such as the real world, or "in situ," experiments proposed by Project Vesta, need to be carried out. This study lays out methodologies by which CO2 dissolution can be tracked and by which the safety of the ecosystem can be monitored. Project Vesta is being advised in our work and is in and contact with a majority of the authors of this paper.
Research On Mechanical Activation:
Natural Olivine Weathering Rates:
Research On Carbonation
Research On Mining: Pricing, Sustainability, Strategy
Carbonate-Silicate Cycle | Longterm Cabon Cycle | Inorganic Carbon Cycle
Historically Significant Papers On Mineral Carbonation
Additional Applications of Olivine For Combating Climate Change
Schuiling, R. D. (2014). The Green Cookery book: Recipes against cliamte change and ocean acidifcation
The Olivine Foundation. Eureka – one stone to kill two birds