Phase III: Carbon Neutral Countries
As countries aim to reach carbon neutrality, they will need olivine sand beaches to help them achieve it
The race to become the first carbon-neutral country is on and even countries with 100% renewable power sources will struggle to offset the CO2 created from the internal combustion engines of non-electric vehicles and industrial factories. By removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through the spreading of olivine on their coastlines, countries will have a scalable and financially viable technique available today, that can allow them to reach their goals.
As an example, Costa Rica, which is looking to decarbonize completely by 2050, has an issue that 60% of its emissions are currently generated by vehicles. Even though they had 300 days of 100% renewable energy generation last year, they still have to deal with the emissions of all those vehicles. It will take decades to switch to an all-electric fleet and requires new infrastructure and societal conditioning.
Costa Rica has ample shelf-sea coastlines and warm enough water alongside the entire country that they could deploy olivine on a large scale nearly anywhere they desire. With a 2016 level of only 1.71 tons of CO2 emissions per capita, it would only require 1.368 tons of olivine to be weathered per person to remove 100% of their CO2 footprint. At that scale, even with the price of olivine at $20 per ton, it would cost just $27.72 per person for the country to be 100% carbon neutral (removing an equivalent of the country’s yearly total output of 8,328.9 kt of CO2). With a population of 4.9 million and a GDP of $57 billion, the $135,994,320 cost for the project would be less than 0.2% of their GDP.